亚博体亚博信誉有保障

王彬彬:隔在中西之间的日本——现代汉语中的日语“外来语”问题

LAIYUAN:FANYIJIAOXUEYUYANJIU

ZUOZHE:FANYIJIAOXUEYUYANJIU

2019-02-26

  YI

  ZHONGRIZHIJIANDEWENHUAJIAOLIUSHISHANG,YOUZHEXUDUOYOUQUWEIYEYOUYIWEIDESHI。CONGDADEFANGMIANSHUO,YOULIANGGESHIQIDEQINGXINGTEBIEYINRENZHUMU。YISHIZAIZHONGGUOTANGDAI,YISHIZAIJINDAI。ZAITANGDAI,SHIRIBENTANLANDIXIANGZHONGGUOXUEXI,SHENZHISHIZAIYUZHONGGUOWENHUAJIECHUHOU,DAHEMINZUCAISHOUCIYUWENZIZAOYU,CONGCICAIXUEHUILESHUXIE。RIYUDE“JIAMING”(ZIMU)BUGUOSHIHANZIDEBIANTI。ERZAIJINDAI,ZESHIZHONGGUOPANMINGDIXIANGRIBENXUEXI。BIEDEFANGMIANQIEBULUN,JINJIUYUYANWENZIFANGMIANSHUO,ZAIJINDAI,DAOSHIRIBENCHENGLEHANYUDESHUCHUGUO。RIBEN“HANYU”,CHONGJIZHEDONGYAGEGUODEYUYANXITONG,DANGRANYEDALIANGJINRUZHONGGUODEHANYUZHONG,CHENGWEIZHONGGUORENRICHANGYUYANDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN。

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  YISHANGSHIWOJINNIANOURANJIANDAODESHEJIDAORIYU“WAILAIYU”DEWENZHANGZHONGDEJIPIAN。ZHEIXIEWENZHANG,YEYINFAWODUIZHEIYIWENTIDEXINGQU。

  20NIANQIAN,DANGWOKAISHIXUEXIRIYUSHI,WOFAXIANRIYUZHONGYOUNEIYANGDUODEHANYUCI,ZHEILINGWOYOUGUODUANZANDEJINGQI;ERHOULAI,DANGWOZHIDAOHANYUZHONGYOUNEIYANGDUODERIYUCISHI,WOQUEBUDEBUYOUCHIJIUDEJINGYA。

  XIANSHIHANZIHEHANYUCIHUIJINRURIBEN,BINGZAOJIULERIBENDESHUMIANYU;DANGRIBENZAIJINDAIYUXIFANGXIANGYUHOU,BIANDALIANGSHIYONGHANZIHEHANYUCIQUYIXIANGYINGDEXIFANGMINGCI、SHUYU;CHUZIRIBENXUERENZHISHOUDEZHEIXIEYIYU,ZAIQINGMOYOUCHAOSHUIBANYONGRUZHONGGUO。——ZHEIGEGUOCHENGHENFUZA,YEHENYOUQU。WOSUONENGJIECHUDEZILIAOSHIFENYOUXIAN,ZHINENGMIANQIANGSHUOCHUYIGEDAGAI。

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  JUXIANGMINGCIBENSHENYEXUBINGBUZHIDEDUOTAN,WOGANXINGQUDESHICHOUXIANGMINGCI。DANJUXIANGMINGCIYUCHOUXIANGMINGCIZHIJIAN,YOUSHIBINGWUMINGQUEDEJIEXIAN。YOUXIEMINGCI,ZAIGUHANYUZHONGBENBUJUYOUCHOUXIANGDEYIYI,CHUANRURIBENHOU,ZEBEICHOUXIANGHUALE。

  ZAIYUHANZIZAOYUZHIQIAN,DAHEMINZUMEIYOUZIJIDEWENZI,DANQUEYOUZIJIDEYUYANXITONG。ZAIYUANYOUDERIYUZHONG,JUXIANGMINGCIHENFENGFU,DUIZHONGZHONGJUTISHIWUDOUYOUHENJINGQUEDEMINGMING,DANCHOUXIANGMINGCIQUEJIBUFADA。ZHEIYEBINGBUQIGUAI。DANGYIGEMINZUHAIMEIYOUZIJIDEWENZISHI,SHIBUKENENGYOUFADADECHOUXIANGSIWEIDE,YINERYEJIUBUHUIYOUDALIANGDEGAINIANCHANSHENG。ZHISHIZAIYUHANYUJIECHUHOU,HANYUZHONGZHONGDUODECHOUXIANGMINGCICAIJINRURIBENYUANYOUDEYUYANZHONG。HANYUZHONGDEZHONGZHONGJUXIANGMINGCI,LIRUSHAN、CHUAN、CAO、MU、RI、YUE、YUN、WU,DENGDENG,SUIYECHUANRURIBEN,DANRIBENRENKEANZHAOZIJIYUANYOUDEFAYINLAIDUZHEIXIEHANZI,DANXIANGHANYUZHONGDEZIRAN、DAODE、ZHENGZHI、JINGJI、FENGLIU、WENXUEZHEILEICHOUXIANGMINGCI,YINRIYUZHONGYUANBENJIUMEIYOUXIANGYINGDECIYUZHIPIPEI,BIANZHINENGMOFANGHANYUDEFAYINLAIDUZHEIXIECI。ZAIDAHEMINZUYUHANYUXIANGYUSHI,HANYUZHONGDECHOUXIANGMINGCI,ZAIYIN、XING、YISANFANGMIANDUITAMENDOUSHIMOSHENGDE。

  ERZAIJINDAI,DANGRIBENYUXIFANGYUYANZAOYUHOU,DALIANGCAIYONGHANYUCHOUXIANGMINGCIQUYIXIFANGGAINIAN,LIRU,YONG“JINGJI”YI“economy”,YONG“ZIRAN”YI“nature”,YONG“WENXUE”SHI“literaure”。ZUOWEIZHONGGUOREN,WOMENYINGGAIZHIDAOZHEIXIEBEIRIBENRENYONGLAIYIXIFANGDECIHUI,YUANBENSHICONGZHONGGUOSHURUDE,DANWOMENGENGYINGGAIZHIDAO,ZHEIXIEHANYUCIZAICHUANRURIBENHOU,QIZHONGBUSHAOYIYIDOUBUTONGCHENGDUDIFASHENGLEBIANHUA。CHOUXIANGMINGCICONGYIGEMINZUCHUANRULINGYIGEMINZU,BUKENENGSHIZHONGBAOCHIYUANZHIYUANWEI,JIBIANZAIWENHUAFAZHANJIEDUANXIANGDENGDELIANGGEMINZUJIAN,YEKENENGFASHENGWUDUHEWUJIE,HEKUANGDANGSHIDERIBENZAIWENHUAFAZHANJIEDUANSHANGYUZHONGGUORUCIXUANSHU。NEIYIDAPIZHIGENYUZHONGGUOWENHUAZHONGDECHOUXIANGMINGCIBEIRIBENYIZHIGUOQUHOU,YAOZHENZHENGZAIRIBENWENHUAZHONGZHAGENSHENGZHANG,JIUBIRANYAOYUHANYUYUANYIFASHENGMOUZHONGCHENGXUDEFENLI。RIBENXIANDAIXUESHUJIEDUIZHEIXIEHANYUCIZAIGUHANYUZHONGDEYUANYIYIJICHUANRURIBENHOUDEYIYIBIANHUA,YEDUOYOUKAOSUO。LIRU“JINGJI”YICI,ZAIGUHANYUZHONGZHI“JINGSHIJISU”、“ZHIGUOPINGTIANXIA”,DANCHUANRURIBENHOU,ZEYIYIBIANDEXIAZHAIQILAI,BEIZHUANYONGLAIZHICAIWUJINGYING、CAIZHENGCUOSHI。ZAIRU“ZIRAN”ZHEIGECI,ZAIGUHANYUZHONGZHIBUYILAIRENLI,HUORENDUIZHIWUNENGWEILIDEXIANXIANG,DANZAICHUANRURIBENHOU,QUEJUYOULE“OURAN”、“WANYI”、 “YIWAI”ZHEIJIZHONGYISI。

  HAIYOUDECI,ZAIHANYUZHONGYUANBENZHIBEIYONGYUYIZHONGHENJUXIANGDECHANGHE,BINGBUJUYOUMINGXIANDECHOUXIANGYIYI,DANZAICHUANRURIBENHOU,CIYIZEJIANJIANXIANGCHOUXIANGDEFANGXIANGFAZHAN。LIRU,XIANDAIHANYUZHONGDE“SHEHUI”ZHEIGECI,YISHIYIGECHOUXIANGMINGCI,SHIRIYU“WAILAIYU”ZHONGDEYIGE。ZHEISHIRIBENXUERENDUIXIFANG“society”DEFANYI。DAN“SHEHUI”ZAIGUHANYUZHONG,JIBENSHANGSHIYIGEJUXIANGMINGCI,TEZHIMEINIANCHUNQIULIANGJIXIANGCUNXUESHUJUXINGDEJISITUDISHENDEJIHUI。《CIHAI》SHANGJU《DONGJINGMENGHUALU·QIUSHE》ZHONGDEYIDUANHUALAISHUOMINGZHEIGECI:“BAYUEQIUSHE……SHIXUEXIANSHENGYULIANZHUSHENGQIANZUOSHEHUI,YIZHIGUQIANZHIYING、BAIXI、GECHANGZHIREN。GUISHIGEXIEHUALAN、GUOSHI、SHIWU、SHEGAOERSAN。CHUNSHE、ZHONGWU、ZHONGJIU,YISHIRUCI。”DANZHEIGECICHUANRURIBENHOU,JIANJIANBIEYOUSUOZHI。JURIBENXUEZHELINGMUXIUCIKAOZHENG,ZAIJIANGHUMOQI,RIBENYIJIANGYIJIAOHUIWEIZHONGXINDEJIAOTUAN、JIAOPAICHENGZUO“SHEHUI”,ZHEIJIUYIJINGSHIZHEIGECIJUYOUYIDINGCHENGDUDECHOUXIANGYIYILE。

  SAN

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  DIERZHONGFANGSHI,SHIDUIHANYUCIDEYUANYIJIAYIGAIZAO,SHIZHISHIHEYUZUOXIWENGAINIANDEYIYU。TONGGUOZHEIZHONGFANGSHICHANSHENG DEYIYUHENDUO。LIRUGEMING、YISHU、WENHUA、WENMING、WENXUE、FENGJIAN、JIEJI、GUOJIA、YANSHUO、MINZHU、ZIYOU、JINGJI、SHEHUI,DENGDENG,DOUSHUZHEIYILEI。SHANGWENSHUODAO,YOUXIEHANYUCISHURURIBENHOU,YIYIYIZIRANERRANDIFASHENGLEBIANHUA,LIRU“JINGJI”、“SHEHUI”DENG。RIBENXUERENZAIXUANDINGZHEIZHONGHANYUCILAIYI“economy”、“societyDENGXIANGYINGDEXIWENGAINIANSHI,GAIBUHUIYOUGUODUODEYOUYU。ERGENGDUODESHIHOU,RIBENXUERENBIXUDUIHANYUCIDEYUANYIJINXINGYOUYISHIDEJIAGONG,CAINENGWEIMOUGEXIWENGAINIANXUANDINGYIGEDATIHESHIDEYIYU。JIANGHANYUCIDEYUYICHOUXIANGHUA,SHIRIBENXUERENGAIZAOHANYUCIYIDEYIZHONGTUJING。LIRU“JIEJI”YICI,HANYUYUANYIZHITAIJIEHEGUANWEIFENGJIDEDENGJI,BUJUDUOSHAOCHOUXIANGDEYIYI,DANGRIBENXUERENBA“JIEJI”ZUOWEIXIWEN“class”DEYIYUHOU,BIANJIANGZHEIGECIDADACHOUXIANGHUALE。LINGYIZHONGTUJINGZESHIJIANGHANYUCIDEYUANYISUOXIAO,JIQUQIYUANYIZHONGDEYIBUFEN,LAIYIXIWENGAINIAN。LIRU“WENXUE”ZHEIGECI,HANYUYUANYISHIFENKUANFAN,YIQIEWENZIXINGTAIDESHUJIWENXIAN,DOUSHU“WENXUE”ZHILIE,ZAIHANTANG,“WENXUE”HAISHIYIZHONGGUANZHI。ERDANGRIBENXUERENYONG“WENXUE”LAIYIXIWENDE“literature”SHI,ZHIQULEQIZHONGDEYIBUFENHANYI。HAIYOUYIZHONGTUJING,BIANSHIDUIHANYUCIJINJINJIAQIZIERWANQUANBUQUQIYI,SHENZHIFUYUYIZHONGYUHANYUYUANYIWANQUANXIANGFANDEYIYI。LIRU“MINZHU”ZHEIGECI,HANYUYUANYIZHI“SHUMINZHIZHUZAI”,ERDANGRIBENXUERENYONGYIYIXIWENDE“democracy”SHI,BIANLINGQIBIAODALEYIZHONGYUHANYUYUANYIJIERANDUILIDEYIYI。

  DISANZHONGFANGSHI,SHIXINZAOHANYUCI。MIANDUIXIWENGAINIAN,ZAIXIANYOUHANYUCIHUIZHONGSHIZAIZHAOBUDAOXIANGYINGDECIKEZUOYIYUSHI,RIBENXUERENBIANLIYONGHANZIZUCHENGXINDECI。YIZHEIZHONGFANGSHICHANSHENGDEXIWENYIYUYEPOBUSHAO。ZAIJUXIANGMINGCIZHONG,SHANGWENSUOSHUODE“DIANHUA”BIANSHUZHEIZHONGLEIXING。ZAICHOUXIANGMINGCIZHONG,GEREN、MINZU、ZONGJIAO、KEXUE、JISHU、ZHEXUE、MEIXUEDENGDENG,DOUSHURIBENXUERENSHENGZAODEHANYUCI。LIRU“ZHEXUE”YICI,WEIZAIXIWENDONGYIFANGMIANZUOCHUZHUOYUEGONGXIANDEXIZHOUSUOZAO,YONGYIYIXIWENDE“philosophy”;“MEIXUE”ZEWEIYOU“DONGYANGLUSUO”ZHIYUDEZHONGJIANGZHAOMINSUOZAO,YONGYIYIXIWENDE“aesthetics”。


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  YISHANGJIZHONGFANGSHI,RIBENXIANDAIXUEZHEDOUCENGTIDAO。DANWOHAIFAXIANLINGYIZHONGQINGXING,JIBEIRIBENJINDAIXUERENCONGHANJIZHONGXUANQUYONGZUOXIWENYIYUDECI,ZAIHANYUZHONGYUANBENBINGBUGOUCHENGYIGECI。LIRU“ZHUYI”ZHEIGECI,ZAIGUHANYUZHONGBINGBUCUNZAI。RIBENXIANDAIXUEZHEZAIKAOZHENG“ZHUYI”YUYUANSHI,QUESHUO“ZHUYI”YICIYUANWEIHANJIZHONGSUOYOU,BINGJULE《SHIJI·TAISHIGONGZIXU》ZHONGDE“GANFANYANSEYIDAZHUYI”YIYUWEIZHENG,YIWEIRIBENJINDAIXUERENRENGSHICONGHANJIZHONGZHAODAO“ZHUYI”ZHEIGEXIANCUNDETONGQUYIYINGWENDECIWEI“ism”。DANTAISHIGONGZHEIJUHUAZHONGDE“ZHU”ZHIZHUSHANG,YEJIUSHIHANWENDI,QUANJUBENYISHISHUOGANYUFANYANQIANGJIAN,ZHIHUANGSHANGYUYI。SUOWEI“DAZHUYI”,BUSHISHUOZIJIYAOJIANCHISHIXIANMOUZHONGXINNIAN,ERSHISHUOSHIZHUSHANGDIDAYIDEJINGJIE。ZAIZHEIJUHUAZHONG,“ZHUYI”GENBENBUGOUCHENGYIGEDULIDEYUYANCHENGFEN。YOUQUDESHI,RIBENCHUBANDE《DAHANHECIDIAN》ZHONG,YEJU《TAISHIGONGZIXU》ZHONGDEZHEIJUHUAWEI“ZHUYI”YICIDEHANWENCHUDIAN。RIBENJINDAIXUERENYOUKENENGSHIJIANGHANJIZHONGDE“ZHUYI”WUDUCHENGYIGECI,BINGZUOLEWANGWENSHENGYIDELIJIE,ZAIYIYIXIWENDE“ism”。BUGUO,RIBENJINDAIXUERENHANWENCHENGDUDOUHENGAO,YEKENENGCHIMENGENBENMEIYOUWUJIEHANWEN,“ZHUYI”BUGUOSHITAMENXINZAODEYI GECI,YU“YIDAZHUYI”ZHEIZHONGHANWENZHONGDE“ZHUYI”WUGUAN。ERWUJIEWUDUDE,ZHISHIHOULAIDEKAOZHENGZHE。

  ZHIDEYISHUODESHI,JINTIANZAIZHONGRILIANGGUOBEIGUANGFANSHIYONGDENEIXIEZUOWEIXIWENYIYUDEMINGCI、GAINIAN,YEBINGFEIYIKAISHIBIANZAIRIBENBEIPUBIANCHENGRENDE。ZAIRIBENJINDAIKAISHIDALIANGYIJIEXIFANGZHUZUODESHIHOU,WANGWANGTONGYIGEXIWENMINGCI、GAINIAN,YOUSHUZHONGYIFA,QIEZAIXIANGDANGZHANGDESHIQINEI,SHUZHONGYIFABINGCUN,ERZUIZHONGZHANZHULEJIAODENEIZHONGYIFA,YESHIZAIYUQITAYIFADEZHENGDOUZHONGCAICUNHUOXIALAIDE。LIRU,“literature”ZHEIGEXIWENCI,YIKAISHIZAIRIBENZHISHAO YOU“WENZHANGXUE”HE“WENXUE”LIANGZHONGYIFA,ZUIHOU“WENZHANGXUE”BEITAOTAI,“WENXUE”BEIPUBIANRENKE。DANZHIDAOBENSHIJI30NIANDAI,RIBENXUEZHEGANGQIYIHUIHAIDUI“WENXUE”ZHEIYIYIMINGBIAOSHIYIYI,TARENWEI“WENXUE”ZHEIYIGAINIANBAOHANZHESHIWENHESHIWENZHIXUELIANGZHONGYISI,CIYIAIMEIBUMING,JIANYIJIANG“WENXUE”ZHEIYISHUOFAFEIQI,FENBIEYONG“WENYI”LAIZHICHENGSHIWEN,YONG“WENYIXUE”LAIZHICHENGSHIWENZHIXUE。DANGRAN,ZHEIZHONGYIYIDAGAIYIBUKENENGDONGYAO“WENXUE”ZHEIGEGAINIANDEDIWEILE。ZAIRU“art”ZHEIGEGAINIAN,YIKAISHIYOU“YISHU”、“MEISHU”、“WENXUEJIYI”DENGSHUZHONGYIYUBINGXING,ZHIDAOBENSHIJICHUNIAN,“YISHU”CAIZUIZHONGZHANSHENGQITAYIFAERQUDELAOGUDIWEI。YOUDEYIYUDECHANSHENG、DINGXING,SUOJINGLIDEGUOCHENGSHIFENJIANNANQUZHE。LIRU“GEREN”ZHEIGEGAINIAN,JINTIANZAIZHONGRILIANGGUOBEISHIYONG DEPINLVDOUHENGAO。ZHEISHIXIWEN“individual”DEYIYU。HANYUZHONGYUANMEIYOU“GEREN”ZHEIGECI,JURIBENXIANDAIXUEZHEKAOZHENG,“GEREN”ZHEIGEYIYUDEXUANQU,BENSHIDUIHANYU“YIGEREN”DESHENGLVE。ZAIYIKAISHI,YECENGZHIJIEYONG“YIGEREN”LAIYI“individual”,ERQIEZAIHENZHANGSHIQINEI,ZHEIGEXIWENGAINIANZAIRIBENYOUDUOZHONGYIFABINGCUN,“GESHUZHIRENSHEN”、“DU YIZHE”、“REN”、“DUYIGEREN”、“SIREN”DENGYIYUDOUCENGBEISHIYONG,“GEREN”ZHEIZHONGYIFABINGBUSHIZUIZAOCHUXIANDE,DANQUEZUIZHONGHUOSHENG。

  SI

  1898NIANQIU,WUXUBIANFASHIBAIHOUDELIANGQICHAO,QIANRURIBENJUNJIANDADAOHAO,WANGMINGDONGYING。HAISHANGDESHIGUANGSHIMANZHANGERWULIAODE。WEIDAFAWULIAO,BINGBUTONGRIWENDELIANGQICHAOJIELAILEYIBENRIBENZUOJIADONGHAISANSHISUOZUODEXIAOSHUO《JIARENZHIQIYU》,FANKAIYIKAN,CHULEYIXIERIWENGEZHUCIWAI,JINGMANZHIDOUSHIHANZI,SHENZHIPODUO“ZHIHUZHEYE”,LINGLIANGQICHAONENGKANDONGGEDAGAI,BINGQIENENGKANQIXINGQULAI,TONGSHIYERANGLIANGQICHAOWUDAO,YONGXIAOSHUOQIFAMINZHI,XUANCHUANBIANFAWEIXINSIXIANG,SHIYIZHONGJIHAODEFANGSHI。XIANGDAOZHEIYIDIAN,LIANGQICHAOYIDINGHENXINGFEN。ZAIHENGBINZHUXIAHOU,TACHUANGBANLEMIANXIANGGUONEIDUZHEDE《QINGYIBAO》,ZAICHUANGKANHAOSHANGTAFABIAOLE《YIYINZHENGZHIXIAOSHUOXU》,ZAIZHEIPIANXUANYANSHIDEWENZHANGHOUMIAN,SHI《JIARENZHIQIYU》DEHANYILIANZAI;《JIARENZHIQIYU》LIANZAIWANZHIHOU,JINJIEZHEYOUKAISHILIANZAIRIBENZUO JIAYELONGXIDEXIAOSHUO《JINGGUOMEITAN》DEHANYI。——LIANGBUXIAOSHUODEYIWEN,DOUCHUZIBINGBUTONGRIWENDELIANGQICHAOZHISHOU。


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  ZHEIGESHIHOU,DALIANGDEXIFANGMINGCI、SHUYUYIJINRURIYUZHONG,BEICHENGZUO“ZHENGZHIXIAOSHUO”DE《JIARENZHIQIYU》HE《JINGGUOMEITAN》ZHONG,ZIRANYEBUFAZHEILEIYIYU。ERBINGBUTONGRIWENDELIANGQICHAO,ZAITADEYIWENZHONG,DUIZHEIXIERIBENRENDEYIYU,DANGRANYEJIUZHINENGYUANYANGZHAOBANLE,——ERZHEI,BIANSHISUOWEIRIYU“WAILAIYU”JINRUZHONGGUODEKAIDUAN。LIANGQICHAOZAIZHEIYANGZUOSHI,YEXUBINGMEIYOUGUODUODEYILV,TAHENQINGYIDIJIUBAZHURUMINZHU、KEXUE、ZHENGZHI、JINGJI、ZI YOU、FALV、ZHEXUE、MEIXUEYILEICIHUIJIESHAOJILEZHONGGUODUZHE。ZHEIYEJIUYIWEIZHE,RIYU“WAILAIYU”BEIYINJINZHONGGUO,SHIZAIYIZHONGBUDEYI、BUZIJUEDEQINGXINGXIAKAISHIDE。

  BUGUO,LIANGQICHAOXIANGGUONEIYIJIERIBENZHENGZHIXIAOSHUODETONGSHI,YEJIUKAISHILELEIYIXIANSHENG《“HUANGJINSHINIAN”》YIWENZHONGSUOSHUODEJINDAIZHONGRIGUANXISHISHANGDE“HUANGJINSHINIAN”,JUGUOSHANGXIAXIANQILEYIGUXIANGRIBENXUEXIDERECHAO。YIBEIYICHENGRIWENDEXIFANGZHUZUO,YEZAIZHEISHIQIBEIZHUANYICHENGHANYU,SHENZHIRIBENDEZHONGJIJIAOKESHUDOUBEIFANYIGUOLAI,YONGZUOJIAOCAI。LUXUNLIURIGUILAI,ZAISHIFANRENJIAOSHI,JIUQINZIDONGSHOUZUOGUOFANYIRIBENJIAOKESHUHERIJIJIAOYUANJIANGYIDEGONGZUO。GOUCHENGXIANDAIHANYUBUKEHUOQUEDEYIBUFENDESUOWEIRIYU“WAILAIYU”,YEJIUSHIZAIZHEISHIHOUDAGUIMODIJINRULEZHONGGUO。

  BENLAI,YANGWUYUNDONGSHIYAOXIANGXIFANGXUEXI,DONGDEXIFANG,FANYIXIFANGZHUZUOBIANXIANDEHENBIYAO。DANYIZHUANXIANGYIRIBENWEISHI,RENMENXUEXIXIWENDESHITOUYEJIUDUNJIAN。XIANGRIBENXUEXI,WUFEISHIXIWANGTONGGUOXUEXIRIBENJIANJIEDIXUEXIXIFANG。NEISHICHAOYEPUBIANRENWEI,ZHEIYANGZUOKEYISHOUSHIBANGONGBEIZHIXIAO。DANDUIZHEIGUXIANGRIBENXUEXIDERECHAO,ZHONGGUOJINDAIDIYIYIJIAYANFUQUECHIJIANJUEDEFANDUITAIDU。ZAIFABIAOYU《WAIJIAOBAO》SHANG DE《YU(WAIJIAOBAO)ZHURENSHU》ZHONG,TAXIEDAO:

  WUWENXUESHUZHISHI,BIQIUZHICHUDIERHOUDEQIZHEN,ZIFENERMUXINSIZHILI,YIDEZHIYULIANGJIANZHIJIANXIANGZHE,SHANGZHISHANGZHEYE。QICIZEQILINGYUJIANCEZHISUOLIUCHUAN,SHIYOUZHISUOSHOUYE。RANSHIERZHE,BIZIZHIQIBENYONGZHIWENZIWUYIYE。ZUIXIANAIQIUZHIFANYI,QIGECHENMIDUO,QIQUZHENZIYUAN。JINFUKEXUESHUYI,WUGUOZHISUOCHANGYIZHE,ZHILIAOLIAOYI。JIRIBENZHISUOQINKUERJINDEZHE,YIFEIQISUOGUYOU,CIBUBIWEIWULINHUIYE。BIZHIQUGUJIUXIN,WEISHIJINSANSHINIANER。JINQIUTAIXIERSANQIANNIANZIRUYANYIZHIXUESHU,YUSANSHINIANQINKUJINDE ZHIRIBEN,SUIQISHENGYOUYIZHU,QIMINGYIKEJUEQIWEIANYE,QIKAODINGKEBUQIWEIMIYE。NAITUYIJINWOZHIGU,PEIRANLVTIANXIAXUEZHEQUNERQUZHI,SHIYOUWUZHIERBUHAOXUERUCIZHEHU?ZHURUWENJINGTIANGAOYUXIU REN,YIQIYUJIERSUIXINZHI。FENZHISUOWEI,HEYIYICI。

  YANFUQIANGDIAOYAOSHENQIELEJIEXIFANGSIXIANGXUESHU,XUZHIJIEDUYUANZHU。JIEZHUFANYIYISHIWANBUDEYI,JIEZHUFANYIDEFANYI,JIUGECHENGENGDUO,QUZHENGENGYUANLE。TARENWEIRIBENDUIXIFANGGAINIANDEFANYI,DUOBUZHUNQUE,YINCIYEBUNENGWUTIAOJIANDIJIEYONG,ERWANGWANGJIANCHIZIJIDEYIFA。LIRU,TAFANDUI“JINGJI”ZHEIGERIBENYIYU,ERDAIZHIYI“JIXUE”,BINGZAI《YUANFU》JUANSHOUDE“YISHILIYAN”ZHONGSHUOMINGLELIYOU:“JIXUE,XIMINGYEKENUOMI,BENXILAYU。YEKE,CIYANJIA。NUOMI,WEINIEMOZHIZHUAN,CIYANZHI。YANJI,ZEQIYISHIYUZHIJIA。YINERSHENZHI,WEIFANLIAOLIANGJINGJIZUNJIECHUNAZHISHI,KUOERCHONGZHI,WEIBANGGUOTIANXIASHENGSHIWEIYONGZHIJING。GAIQIXUNZHISUOBAOZHIZHONG,FANGRIBENYIZHIYIJINGJI,ZHONGGUOYIZHIYILICAI。GUQIUBIWENHE, ZEJINGJIJIXIANTAIKUO,ERLICAIYOUWEIGUOQIE,ZIWOZUOGU,NAIYIJIXUEDANGZHI。”


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  TARENWEI“JINGJI”YIYU,YUANYIBIXIWEN“economy”KUANFAN,YINCIBUYIZUOYIYU。ZAILIRU,TAJUJUEJIEYONGRIWENYIYU“SHEHUI”,ERJIANCHIBAXIWENDE“society”YIZUO“QUN”,JIANG“SHEHUIXUE”YIZUO“QUNXUE”。CIWAI,“capital”RIYI“ZIBEN”,YANYI“MUCAI”;“evolution”RIYI“JINHUA”,YANYI“TIANYAN”;“philosophy”RIYI“ZHEXUE”,YANYI“LIXUE”; “metaphysics”RIYI“XINGERSHANGXUE”,YANYI“XUANXUE”……

  DANYANFUDUIRIBENYIYU,YEBINGFEIYIGAIJUJUE。ZAITAZIJIDEZHUSHUZHONG,SHIYONGRIBENYIYUDELIZIXIANGSHIYEBUXIANJIAN。DUIYOUDERIBENYIYU,TAYEHENSHOUKEN。LIRU,JIANGXIWENDE“liberty”HE“freedom”YIZUO“ZIYOU”,YANFUJIUHAOWUYIYI,BINGQIESHUO:“XIMINGDONGYI,SHIZHEGUDUO,DUCIWUCHENG,DAIWUYIYI。”

  WU

  ZAIZENYANGFANYIXIFANGSHUYUDEWENTISHANG;DANGCHUZAIZHONGGUOSHIYOUGUOZHENGYIDE。DATIYOUSANZHONGGUANDIAN。

  YIZHONGZHUZHANGJINKENENGYOUZHONGGUOZIJIDEYIFA,FANDUIWUTIAOJIANDIJIEYONGRIYI,YANFUKEWEIZHEIZHONGGUANDIANDEDAIBIAO。YIZHONGZEZHUZHANGJINKENENGJIEYONGRIBENYIYOUDEYIFA。HAIYOUYIZHONGGUANDIAN,ZEZHUZHANGDUIXIWENSHUYUJINXINGYINYI。

  WANGGUOWEIBIANZHUZHANGJINKENENGJIEYONGRIBENYIYOUDEYIYU。ZAI《LUNXINXUEYUZHISHURU》YIWENZHONG,TASHOUXIANQIANGDIAOLEXINXUEYUSHURUZHIBIYAO,ZAIZENYANGSHURUDEWENTISHANG,ZEBIAODALEZHEIYANGJIZHONGKANFA:


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  (YI)TAQIANGDIAOLEJIEYONGRIBENYIYUDEKEXINGXINGHEBIANLIZHICHU:“SHUNIANYILAI,XINGSHANGZHIXUEJIANRUYUZHONGGUO,ERYOUYOUYIRIBENYAN,WEIZHIZHONGJIANZHIYIQI,YUSHIRIBENSUOZAOYIXIYUZHIHANWEN,YIHUNHUNZHISHI,ERQINRUZHONGGUOZHIWENXUEJIE。HAOQIZHELANYONGZHI,NIGUZHETUOQIZHI,ERZHEJIEFEIYE。FUPUTONGZHIWENZIZHONG,GUWUSHIYUXINQIZHIYUYE;ZHIYUJIANGYIXUE,ZHIYIYI,ZEFEIZENGXINYUBUKE。ERRIBENZHIXUEZHE,JIXIANWOERDINGZHIYI,ZEYANERYONGZHI,HEBUKEZHIYOU?GUFEISHENBUTUOZHE,WURENGUWUYICHUANGZAOWEIYE。……QIERIRENZHIDINGMING,YIFEIGOUYANERYI,JINGZHUANMENSHUSHIJIAZHIKAOJIU,SHUSHINIANZHIGAIZHENG,YIYOUJINRIZHEYE。QIEWEIJIEQURIRENZHIYIYU,YOUSHUBIANYAN:YINXIZHIYI,BURUCHUANGZAOZHINAN,YIYE;LIANGGUOXUESHUYOUJIAOTONGZHIBIAN,WUHANGEZHIYU,ERYE。……YOUCIERBIANERWUERNAN,YOUHEXIAN HEYIERBUYONGZAI?”

  (ER)TAPIPINGLEYANFUDIZHIRIYI,“ZIWOZUOGU”DETAIDU,TONGSHI,DUIYANFUZHELIZHUIQIUYIYUDEGUYAYEYOUFEIYI:“HOUGUANYANSHI,JINRIYICHUANGZAOXUEYUMINGZHEYE。YANSHIZAOYUZHIGONGZHEGUDUO,ERQIBUDANGZHEYIFUBUSHAO,ZIBIQIZUIZHUZHE,RUEvolutionZHIWEI‘TIANYAN’YE,SympathyZHIWEI‘SHANXIANGGAN’YE。ERTIANYANZHIYUJINHUA,SHANXIANGGANZHIYUTONGQING,QIDUIEvolutionYUSympathyZHIBENYI,SHUDESHUSHI,SHUMINGSHUAN,FANSHAOYOUWAIGUOYUZHIZHISHIZHE,NINGSIZHONGCHAOERJUEZAI!YOUXIYANGZHIXINMINGCI,WANGWANGXIYIBUSHIDANGZHIGUYUBIAOZHI,……RUHOUGUANYANSHISUOZEZHI《MINGXUE》,GUZEGUYI,QIRUYIYIZHIBUNENGLERANHE?”

  (SAN)TAYEZHICHU,RIBENRENDEYIYU,WEIBIJINJIEZHUNQUE,RUYI“idea”WEI“GUANNIAN”,YI“intuition”WEI“ZHIGUAN”,JIUWEINENGJINCHUANYUANYI。DANZHEIYEXUSHIFANYIBENSHENGUYOUDEJUXIAN,SHIWUKENAIHEZHISHI。JIBIANNEIXIEWEIBIJINGQUEDERIYI,BIQIZHONGGUORENDEYIFA,RENGRANYAOHELIXIE。LIANGHAIXIANGQUAN,HAISHIYINGGAIJIEYONGRIYI。

  (SI)TAZHICHULERIZHONGLIANGGUOFANYIXIWENSHUYUFANGSHIDEBUTONG。RIBENRENDUOYONGSHUANGZIHUOSHUANGZIYISHANGDECIZUQUYIXIWENBENYU,ERZHONGGUORENZEXIGUANYONGDANZI,“JINGMIBUJINGMIZHIFEN,QUANZAIYUCI。”ZHEIQISHIHAISHIZAIPIPINGYANFU。YONGDANZIYIXIWENSHUYU,ZHENGSHIYANFUDEXIGUAN,RU“XUANXUE”、“LIXUE”、“JIXUE”、“QUNXUE”DOUSHUCILEI。

  WANGGUOWEIBIJINGSHIWANGGUOWEI。TASHUORIBENYIYOUYIYUBINGFEISUIYIZAOZUOZHICI,ERSHI“JINGZHUANMENSHUSHIJIAZHIKAOJIU,SHUSHINIANZHIGAIZHENG”,CAIZUIZHONGQUEDING,ZHEIPOHESHIQING,TONGSHIYEWEIZHONGGUORENJIEYONGRIYITIGONGLEYOULIDELIYOU。ERTAZHICHUZAIFANYIXIWENSHUYUSHI,RIBENRENXIYONGSHUANGZIHESHUANGZIYISHANGDECIZU,YINCIBIZHONGGUORENDEXIYONGDANZIGENGNENGJINGQUEDICHUANDAYUANYI,YEZHENRULAOLIDUANYU,YIYUZHONGDE。

  SHIJISHANG,WANGGUOWEIZHEIPIANWENZHANG,YIJIBENSHUOMINGLEWEIHERIBENYIYUZAIZHONGGUOQUANMIANHUOSHENGERYANFUYIYUZEBEITAOTAIDAIJIN。

  ZAIDANGSHI,HAIYOUYIZHONGHENYOUYINGXIANGDEFANYIGUANDIAN,JIZHUZHANGDUIXIFANGSHUYUJINXINGYINYI,ZHANGSHIZHAOSHIZHEIZHONGGUANDIANDEDAIBIAO。SHIJISHANG,YOUXIEXIFANGSHUYU,YECENGYIYINYIDEFANGSHIGUANGWEILIUXING,RU“DEMOKELAXI”(MINZHU)YU“SAIYINSI”(KEXUE)。ZAIZHANGSHIZHAOZHUBIANDE《JIAYIN》SHANG,XIFANGSHUYUDUOYONGYINYI。JIUSHIYANFU,YEYOUGUOYINYIXIFANGSHUYUDECHENGGONGCHANGSHI,RUJIANG“LogiC”YINYICHENG“LUOJI”,JUSHUOBIANCHUZIYANFUZHISHOU。“LUOJI”ERZI,ZAIYIN、XING、YISANFANGMIANDOUXUANZEDEJUEMIAO,SUOYINENGZHANZHUJIAO。DUI“Logic”,RIBENYEYOUYIYIHEYINYILIANGZHONGYIFA,YIYIZUO“LUNLI”,DANHOULAIHAISHIYINYIGENGLIUXING,ERQIE“LUOJI”ZHEIGEHANYUCI,YECHUANRULERIBEN,ZAIXIANDAIRIBENZHUZUOZHONG,ZHEILIANGGEZIYECHANGCHUXIAN,DANZHU“logic”DERIYUYIYIN。ZAIRIBEN,“LUOJI”YICI,SHIZHONG、RI、XISANZHONGWENHUADEHUNXUEER,JIZHONGGUODEZI,RIBENDEYIN,XIFANGDEYI。ZHEIDANGRANHENNAIRENXUNWEI,DANTONGYANGNAIRENXUNWEIDE,SHI“LUOJI”ZHEIGEYINYISHUYU,SIHUSHIYANYISHUYUZHONGZUIYOUSHENGMINGLIDE,——ZHEIQIZHONG,YIDINGYOUZHEMOUZHONGZHIDETANJIUDE“LUOJI”。


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  YANFUHERIBENXUERENDOUSHIYONGHANYUYIXIWEN。LUNXIWENSHUIPING,YANFUJUEBUXUNYUNEIXIE RIBENJINDAIXUEREN。ZHIYUHANWEN,RIBENXUERENSUIYEDOUKANCHENGJINGTONG,DANZHEIBIJINGSHIYANFUDEMUYU,YANFUDEHANWENZAOYI,WUYIYUANZAIRIBENXUERENZHISHANG,DANYANFUQUEBAIJILERIBENREN。WOXIANGYUANYINZHIYI,JIUZHENGZAIYUHANYUSHIYANFUDEMUYU。YINWEISHIMUYU,SUOYIDUIQIYUYIYOUJINGXIDETICHAHESHENQIEDELIJIE,ERZHEIYEJIUCHENGWEIYIZHONGSHUFU,FANYIQILAIBIANBEIHANYUYUANYILAOLAOXIANZHI。ERDUIYURIBENXUERENLAISHUO,HANYUZAIJINGTONG,YEBIJINGZHISHIYIZHONGWAIYU,DUIHANYUTAMENJUEBUHUIHUAIYOUYANFUNEIBANDEGANQING,YINCIYEJIUNENGZIYOUDIQUQIANHANYU。RIBENXUERENKEYIDADANDIGAIZAOHANYUYUANYI,KEYIGENJUXUYAOERFUYUHANYUXINYI,KEYILIYONGHANZISHENGZAOXINCI,SHENZHIKEYIRANGYIGEHANYUCILAICHUANDAYUYUANYIWANQUANXIANGFANDEYIYI。WANWEINEIXIERIBENXUERENDEYIYU,GANDAOTAMENDUIHANZIHANYUZHENSHIHUISAZIRU,ERYAN FUQUENANYIDADAOTAMENZHEIZHONGCHENGDU。

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  BUZHIZHEISHUOFA,SHIFOUNENGCHENGLI?


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