亚博体亚博信誉有保障

翻译牵动文学命脉 ——访韩国著名翻译家金泰成

LAIYUAN:ZHONGGUOWENHUAYIYANWANG

ZUOZHE:CHENGXI

2020-12-24

人物简介

金泰成-小图.jpg

JINTAICHENG(김태성),ZHONGGUOWENHUAYIYANWANG(CCTSS)HUIYUAN,HANGUOZHUMINGFANYIJIA,HANGUOHANSHENGWENHUAYANJIUSUOSUOZHANG。1959NIANCHUSHENGYUHANGUOSHOUER, BIYEYUHANGUOWAIGUOYUDAXUEZHONGWENXI, HUOWENXUEBOSHIXUEWEI。CENGRENJIAOYUHUXIDAXUEDENGDUOSUOGAOXIAODEZHONGGUOXUEXISUO,FUZE《RENMINWENXUE》HANWENBANFANYIGONGZUOJIANRENBIANJIZONGJIAN,HUODISHIJIE“ZHONGHUATUSHUTESHUGONGXIANJIANG”JIANGXIANG。DUONIANLAI,JINTAICHENGXIANSHENGYIZHIQIANXINCONGSHIZHONGGUODANGDAIZUOPINDEFANYIGONGZUO,YICHUBANYIBAIDUOBUZHONGWENTUSHUDEHANWENBANYIZUO,SHEJIZHONGGUOZHEXUE、LISHI、ZHENGZHI、DANGDAIWENXUEYUYISHUDENGDUOGELINGYU,ZUIJUDAIBIAOXINGDEYIZUOYOUTIENING《WUYUZHICHENG》、LIUZHENYUN《YIJUDINGYIWANJU》、SHUTING《ZHIXIANGSHU》、BEIDAO《CHENGMENKAI》、LINXIANZHI《LUXUNPINGCHUAN》、LIANGWENDAO《WOZHI》、ZHUTIANWEN《HUANGRENSHOUJI》、TANGNUO《YUEDUDEGUSHI》DENG。


访(采访人:程熙):您长期以来在介绍中国、翻译和出版中国图书、促进中外文化交流方面做出突出贡献,在韩国翻译界和出版界发挥着重要作用。您个人翻译作品的数量已逾百本,差不多以平均每年5~6本译作的速度翻译出来,并获得第十届“中华图书特殊贡献奖”奖项。我们很想了解,您是如何理解翻译和文学翻译工作的?一个好的译者,应该具备什么样的精神和素养?

金泰成:美国诗人和文学评论家埃兹拉·庞德(Ezra Pound)曾经说过:“翻译是第二次创作”,这在某种程度上承认了翻译工作的艰难与不易。但是我并不完全赞同这个观点。我认为,即便是添加适当的修饰词汇或内容,翻译也不会是创作,也不该成为创作。创作就是创作,而翻译永远只能是翻译。从本质上讲,翻译是一个修辞转换过程。所谓修辞,是指融合了一种语言所蕴含的文化、思维、历史记忆和表达方式等一系列因素的语言系统之和。翻译就是将不同修辞体系表述文本中所包含的形象、思想、主题以及行文风格最大限度地以另一种语言展现出来。翻译工作不是以“创作”为中心,而是以“转换”的完整性和准确性为前提。如果没有这个前提,翻译只会成为歪曲的文本,造成读者阅读的障碍,是对原作的一种“损伤”。

DANGRAN,ZHEIBINGBUBIAOMINGFANYIGUOCHENGZHONGBUCUNZAIQUESHIDECHENGFEN。JIEZHUBOLATUDEMOFANGXUESHUO,KEYIBAFANYIYUWEI“DUIYUANZUODEMOFANG”。YUANZUO(DUIYINGMOFANGLILUNZHONG“SHIGE”YAOSU)SHIDUIZIRANDEMOFANG,FANYIZESHIDUIYUANZUODEMOFANG。SHIGEZAIMOFANGZIRANDEGUOCHENGZHONGCUNZAISHIZHENDEBUFEN,TONGYANG,FANYIGUOCHENGZHONGYEHUICHUXIANPOHUAIYUANZUODEQINGKUANG。JIUQIYUANYIN,MEIYIZHONGYUYANDOUYOUQIZISHENDEJIZHI,YOUQITAYUYANWUFAQUDAIHETIHUANDETEZHIYUYUNWEI。RANER,FANYIYEBUYINGCHENGWEIYIXIANG“YINYEFEISHI”DEGONGZUO,TONGYANGYINGGAIJINGTINEIZHONGJIANGFANYIDEBIRANQUESHIDANGZUOJIEKOU,BAFANYIKANZUO“WENBENDERENYIZHUANHUAN”,CONGERZAOCHENGDUIYUANWENDEBUHELIWAIQUYUPOHUAI。

JINYIBUJIANG,WORENWEIFANYISHIJIESHIXUEDEYIZHONGFANGFALUN。WAERTE·BENYAMING(Walter Benjamin)ZAI《YIZHEDERENWU》(“The Task of the Translator”,1921)YIWENZHONGTICHU“KEYIXING”DEGAINIAN,YINCI,KEYISHUOBUCUNZAIBUKEFANYIDEWENBEN,ZHISHISHEJIYIWEN“TIEHEDU”DEWENTI。FANYIZUIBENZHIYESHIZUIGAOCHAODEJINGJIEJIWEIDUIYUANWEN“JIBUGAIBIANYEBUSUNSHANG”,JIYONGLINGYIZHONGXIUCIXITONGYUANYUANBENBEN、WANWANZHENGZHENGDIZHUANDAJIDUZHE。DANSHIMEIYIZHONGYUYANDOUSHIYITAOGEJUTESE、BUKETIDAIDEXIUCIXITONG,WANQUANBUSHOUSUNDE、LIXIANGZHUANGTAIXIADEWANMEIFANYISHIGENBENBUCUNZAIDE。DANSHI,BUKE“TIDAI”BUDAIBIAOBUKE“ZHUANYI”。

BIRUZHONGGUOGUDIANSHIGEZHONGDEYAYUN,ZHONGGUOGUDAIRENTEDINGSHENGHUOJINGYANHELISHIWENHUAZHONGSUOCHUANGZAODEDIANGUYUCHENGYU,ZAIFANYIWEIQITAYUYANDESHIHOU,JIUHUIFASHENGBUTONGCHENGDUDEZHUANHUANBIANXINGYUYUNWEIDANHUA,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGWUFABIMIANYIWENDESUNSHANG。DANSHI,JINGUANRUCI,RUHEJIANGYUANWENYUYIWENZHIJIANDECHAYIZUIXIAOHUA,CAISHIFANYIJIASUOXUYAOWANCHENGDEYIXIANGZUIZHONGYAODERENWU。JUGELIZI,YOUDEHANGUOYIZHEBAZHONGGUODE“DOUJIANGHEYOUTIAO”FANYIWEI“DOURUHEYOUZHABING”,NEIHANGUODUZHESHIRUHELIJIEZHEILIANGZHONGSHIWUNI?HENDUOHANGUODUZHERENWEI,YUANLAIZHONGGUOYUHANGUOSHENGHUOFANGSHIXIANGTONG,YECHIZHEIXIEDONGXI。ZHONGGUODE“DOUJIANGYOUTIAO”YUHANGUODE“DOURUYOUZHABING”SUIRANSHIDATONGXIAOYIDESHIWU,DANSHIQIYINSHIDESHIJIAN、DIDIAN、ZHIZUOFANGFAJIQIWENHUAHANYISHIJIERANBUTONGDE。ZHEIJIUSHIDUIYUANCIDEWAIQUHEWUJIE,JIANGHUISUNSHANG“DOUJIANGHEYOUTIAO”SUOBAOHANDESHENGHUOFANGSHIHEWENHUAHANYI。ZHEILEIWUFAZAIYIWENDELUODIGUOZHAODAOXIANGDUIYINGSHIWUDECIYU,YINGGAIZHIJIECAIYONGPINYINZHUSHIDEFANGSHI,DUICIYUJINXINGZHUYIN,ZAIDUIQIJINXINGRENWEN、SHEHUI、DILIDENGFANGMIANDEYANSHENXINGCHANSHI。HANGUODUZHEDUIZHONGGUOWENXUEZUOPINDEYUEDUQIDAI,BUSHIWEILEXUNZHAOZHONGGUOYUHANGUODEXIANGSIDIAN,ERSHIWEILEKANDAOYUJIXIANGYIDEZHONGGUOSHEHUIYUSHENGHUOFANGSHI。YINCI,ZAIFANYIDE“KEYIXING”JICHUSHANG,JINKENENGSUOXIAOYUJISHUXIEJIANDECHAYISHIFANYIJIADESHIMINGHEYIWU。

FANYISHIYIZHONGFUWU。YIZHEFUWUZUOJIA,YEFUWUDUZHE。FANYIDUIYUWENXUEERYAN,JIUXIANGSHI“WENXUEDENVPU”。RUGUOYIGEPANGDADEJIAZUZHIYOUZHURENMEIYOUNVPU,SHENGHUOJIANGHUIHENNANYOUXUDIWEICHIXIAQU。YIZHONGJUYOUFENGFUKUANGZANGDEWENXUE,RUGUOMEIYOUYIZHEHEFANYIGONGZUODEFUWU,JIUWUFACHONGFENFAHUIQIJUDADENEIYUNHEYINGXIANGLI。YIZHEDEYUANZEJIUSHIWEIZUOPINTIGONGYOUZHIDEFUWU。“NVPU”DEZERENGANHESHIMINGGANYINGGAISHIYIZHEZIFAERGANDE。ZUOWEIYIMINGHEGEDEYIZHE,YINGGAIJUYOUSHULIANDESHUANGYU、SHENZHIDUOYUDEJINENG、FENGFUDERENWENDILIZHISHIYIJIGAOBIAOZHUNYANYAOQIUDEFANYITAIDU,TONGSHI,YEYINGDUIYUANZUOSUOSHUGUOJIABAOYOUXIAIZHIQING,NULITIGAOYIWENDEPINZHIYUKEDUXINGDENG。MEIYOUZHEIZHONGYISHIYUZHIYECAOSHOUDEREN,JUEDUIZUOBUHAOFANYI,YEJUEDUIBUNENGZUOFANYI。


访:我们知道,您不仅在翻译领域卓有成就,而且在韩国出版界也具有一席之地,曾推介和促成中国两百余部作品在韩出版与发行,并积极发挥着自己独到的见解和广泛的行业影响力。作为资深翻译家,您认为在当前以商业利益为风向标的出版市场环境下,翻译是否能够免受其染指?或者译者如何更好地发挥自己在出版环节乃至图书市场的话语权和影响力?

金泰成:举个韩国的例子,目前占据韩国国外文学图书市场的主要是西方文学与日本文学,形成这一局面的原因不仅只是文学作品的品质,同时与出版界长期以来形成的出版传统、读者市场偏好息息相关。过去一百年,韩国因受以西方文化为中心的全球化(19世纪末至20世纪范畴内的“全球化”)与日本殖民统治的影响,韩国文化长期以来被西欧文化、日本文化、日本式西欧文化(脱亚入欧之后的亚西欧文化)所支配,出版界也不例外。改变这种出版与阅读偏向的最佳办法之一,就是让翻译不再仅为一个独立的翻译环节,而是形成在翻译、出版、阅读三者之间能够多向互动的良性循环系统。只有这样,翻译才能更大限度地发挥其在整个出版界乃至阅读界所产生的影响力。

21SHIJICHU,HANGUOCHUXIANYIGURIBENXIAOSHUODEYUEDURE,ZHEIYEBIAOXIANLEHANGUOZAIZHENGZHISHANGDIZHIRIBENWENHUADECHUANTONGDEZHUJIANXIAOCHUYUMINZUZHUYISIXIANGDESHUAITUI。ZHEIXIESHEHUIWENHUABIANGESHIYIXIEFANYIJIAKAISHIFANYIRIBENYOUXIUZUOPIN,YINERZIYANGCHUYIPIZHUIQIUXINZHIWENHUAZIYANGHEREAIRIBENWENXUEDEDUZHEQUNTI,KUAISUXINGCHENGLEBUYAYUDANGSHIXIFANGWENXUEDEGUANGDARIBENWENXUESHICHANG。XIANGBIZHIXIA,HANGUOCHUBANJIEDEZHONGGUODANGDAIWENXUESHICHANGHAIBUGOUCHENGSHU,JIUQIYUANYIN,YISHIFANYIZHILIANGBUGOUHAO,ERSHIMEIYOUXINGCHENGFANYI、CHUBAN、YUEDUHESHICHANGTUOZHANDENGYIXILIEDELIANGXINGXUNHUANYUNZUOXITONG。TANBAILAIJIANG,MUQIANKONGZHICHUBANXITONGDEBUSHIYISHUXINGERSHISHICHANGXING。CONGTONGSUHESHIJIDECENGMIANLAIKAN,YIGEGAOZHILIANGDEFANYIZUOPINSUOCHANSHENGDESHICHANGXIAOYINGHEDUZHEFANYING,HUIRANGCHUBANSHEZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGGENGJIAZHONGSHIYIZHEDEYIJIANHEGUANDIAN,GENGJIAZUNZHONGYIZHEDELINXUANBIAOZHUNHETUIJIEDEZUOPIN,ZHEIYANGYILAIYIZHEZAICHUBANXITONGNEIJIUHUIGENGYOUHUAYUQUANYUYINGXIANGLI,YOUCIERCHANSHENGDIERXIAOYING(synergy)。WENXUEFANYIZAIBENZHISHANGSHIDUIWENXUEDEYIZHONGFUWU,HAODEWENXUEFANYIJIUSHIYAOQUZHUNEIXIE“YUMUHUNZHU”DEZUOPIN,GENGHAODIYIWENXUEQUGOUTONGSHIJIE。FANYIJIADEHUAYUQUANYUYINGXIANGLI,XIANGWAIYINGGAISHIGENGGUANGFANDIYINGXIANGCHUBANJIEHEYUEDUSHICHANG,XIANGNEIYINGGAIJIAQIANGZIJIDEFANYIJINENGYURENWENSUYANG,TIGAOFANYIZUOPINDEZHILIANG。


访:翻译作为文化交流的必要手段,不仅是转换文字形式,更是一种文化建构方式。您认为,跨文化语际的翻译工作是如何在全球化潮流中发挥起更宏观意义上的社会文化价值的呢? 

金泰成:韩国几大综合类出版社一直保持着出版世界经典文学丛书的传统,并在整体上呈现出倾向欧美文学的偏好。韩国最大的熊津出版社所出版的“企鹅古典系列”丛书109册中,包括欧洲文学80本,北美文学22本,亚洲文学4本,其他地区2本;民音出版社所出版的 “世界文学全集”丛书234本中,欧洲文学作品占据153本,北美文学44本(均为美国作品),亚洲文学17本,拉美文学13本,其他地区仅5本;文学村出版社的“世界文学全集”110本中,欧洲地区文学作品占据68本,北美18本,亚洲15本(除莫言的《十三部》之外,其余均为日本文学作品),拉美文学9本。这组数据表明欧美文学依然占据着韩国读者的主流文学阅读市场,同时也意味着韩国人的精神世界仍旧被欧美文学所控制。韩国这种“文化偏食”现象,是基于20世纪的全球化所形成的局面。19世纪末至20世纪初,席卷世界的全球化也称之为“西化”,不同于我们当下的“全球化”概念。对于当时的亚洲地区来讲,“西化”意味着“文明”,通过西化我们才能克服落后、蛮夷的生存状态,才能成为国际社会的成员之一。这种全盘西化的结果之一就是导致西方文化霸权的畅通无阻。韩国社会中存在的对西方文学的“文化偏食”现象,在短时间内是无法扭转和改变的。有些学者提出要用东亚文化来克服欧美文学霸权的弊端,这种想法过于意识形态化,同样也是帝国主义和文化霸权的一种变形。

JIEJUEZHEIYIWENTIDECELVEZHIYIXUYAOZHONGXINLIJIEWOMENDANGXIASUOSHUODE“QUANQIUHUA”。XIANZAIDE“QUANQIUHUA”SHISHUANGXIANGXINGHUODUOXIANGXINGDE,YUGUOQUDEBUKETONGRIERYU。ZAIDANGXIAQUANQIUHUA(globalization)DEGUOCHENGZHONG,DIFANGHUA(localization)HUOBENTUHUAYEZAITONGBUJINXING,KEYISHUOLIANGZHESHIYIGEYINGBIDELIANGMIAN,ZAIJIEGOUSHANGBUKEFENLI。GUOQUQUANQIUHUADEHEXINLILIANGZHUYAOLAIZIXIFANG,YOUFADADEOUMEIGUOJIALONGDUANSHIJIE;ERDANGXIAQUANQIUHUADEDONGLIZESHILAIZISHIJIEGEFANG,SUIRANYOUJIZHITUCHULILIANGDECUNZAI,DANSHIGEFANGDOUCHENGDANZHEYIDINGDEFENLIANGYUDIWEI,ZAIXIANGHUZHIYUEZHONGJIANQUYIZHONGHEXIEGONGCHUDEZHUANGTAI。MEIGEMINZUHEGUOJIATONGGUOYUGUOJIDESHUANGXIANGJIAOLIUYUHEZUO,GONGTONGTUIJINYUXINGCHENGYIZHONGGENGWEICHENGSHUDEWENHUAQUANQIUHUAGEJU。WENXUEFANYIBUJINJIANGCHENGWEIWENHUAQUANQIUHUAXINGCHENGGUOCHENGZHONGZUIYOUJIAZHIDEYIZHONGJIEZHI,YESHIBAITUOXIFANGWENHUABAQUANDEYOUXIAOSHIJIANFANGFAZHIYI。

2010NIANZHI2014NIAN,HANGUORENCHUANWENHUACAITUANMEINIAN4YUEDOUHUIJUBAN“AALA”(Asia,Africa, Latin America,YAFEILA)WENXUELUNTAN,QIMUDEZAIYUJIANGYAZHOU、FEIZHOUHELAMEIDIQUDEZUOJIAJUJIYITANG,GONGHUAGEDIQUWENHUAFAZHANYUGUOJITUIGUANGSHIYI,TUIJINFEIXIFANGGUOJIADEWENXUEHEZUOYUJIAOLIU,YINULITIANBUHECUCHENGGENGWEIZONGHE、QUANMIANYUPINGHENGDESHIJIEWENXUEGEJU。WOYUDALUDIQUDELIUZHENYUN、BIFEIYU、YANLIANKE、WANGANYI、CHIZIJIAN,TAIWANDIQUDEZHUTIANWEN、LIANGDENGZHUWEIZHONGGUOZUOJIAYITONG,LIANXUWUNIANCANJIALEGAIWENXUELUNTANHUODONG,GANDAOFEICHANGYOUYIYI。DANSHI,ZHEIZHONGGAOWUJIANLINGSHIDEYINIANYIDUDEWENXUELUNTANJIAOLIUHUI,GENGDUODEYIYISHANGSHIDUILIXIANGXINGWENHUAQUANQIUHUAGEJUDESHEXIANGYUTANTAO,QIZHONGXUDUOHUAYUCENGMIANDELUNSHUYUGONGYIYEHAIXUYAOLUOSHIDAOJUTIDEFANYIGONGZUOHECHUBANHEZUODANGZHONG,JIANGHONGGUANDEWENHUAGOUXIANGYUWEIGUANDEWENHUASHIJIANGONGZUOJIEHEQILAI,CUJINGEDIQUDUZHEZHIJIANDEJIAOLIUYULIJIE,YOUCICAINENGGAIBIAN“WENHUAPIANSHI”DEXIANXIANG,SHIXIANZHENZHENGDEWENHUAQUANQIUHUAJINGXIANG。


访:我们知道,您从大学开始便学习汉语和中国文学,一直到最后取得文学博士学位,之后留在高校继续从事中国文学与汉语教育方面的工作。一直以来,您在任教期间也坚持进行翻译工作。近几年,您开始脱离学院体制,专注于进行文学翻译工作,促成您这一转变的动机或机遇是什么?

金泰成:每个国家对中国当代文学的接受情况不同。在韩国,几乎每所大学都有中文系,发表许多关于中国文学的研究论文与成果,国家也会对研究所需要的相关经费给予一定的资助。但是问题在于,这些研究成果与广大读者往往处于一种隔绝的状态。这些没有广大的读者群、只为学院化生产而撰写的论文,在某种程度上也是一种“知识的浪费”。有关当代中国及其文学的经验和知识被“关”在了大学之中——大学内的很多学者大批量生产学理性与高质量的论文,大学外的读者群却依然对中国当代文学懵懂无知,缺乏对当代中国的了解与熟知。专业性的学术研究固然重要,但是当前中国当代文学作品在韩推广的最大障碍还是缺乏大众化的书写。大众化书写是连接广大韩国读者与中国当代文学最快捷的方式,而翻译则是最具代表性的大众化写作之一,也是可与中国文学携手同行的最为轻松愉快的方式。这也是我为什么要走出学院而专注于翻译事业的重要原因之一。



访:您在翻译的过程中,一定会感受到中韩文学事实上存在的差异,您是如何看待这种差异性,及其在两国文学翻译、文化交流中的意义的? 

金泰成:法国哲学家德里达(Jacques Derrida)曾说,“翻译是在自我与他者之间的一种差异性游戏”,而任何翻译都会源自于跨文化交流的需要。对中韩文化之间固有的差异的认识,是我从事文学翻译、进行中韩文化交流工作的一个出发点。文学既是民族的,又是世界的。通过文学之“镜”了解和认知中国,给了韩国读者一次很好地反观自我的机会,同时,也可以借此而镜鉴中国当代文学的精髓与表达方式。与韩国文学相比,中国当代文学最具能量之处,就是“讲故事”(story telling)的方式与传统。中国是一个地大物博、人口稠密、历史悠久的国家,众多的人口与悠久的历史这两大资源为“讲故事”源源不断地输入异彩多姿的营养和能量。中国“讲故事”的叙事传统主要源于古代所谓的“俗文学”(元明清时期的戏曲、说唱文本以及小说等)。不过这种“讲故事”的传统与西方的叙事传统有所不同,比如在西方学者的眼中,作为“四大奇书”之一的《三国演义》并不能称为小说。20世纪60年代美国哈佛大学教授毕晓普(John L. Bishop)便曾在《中国小说的几点局限》(“Some Limitation of Chinese Fiction”,1956)一文中批判过中国的小说叙事方式,他以为:第一,中国小说因为出自说书人的“话本”或“章回体小说”,缺乏对细节性描写的追求;第二,对故事情节与作品的整体结构的考虑不够精细,这也影响了听众或读者的反应与接受;第三,中国小说主要追求读者所喜爱的通俗与愉悦相关的主题,因而题材过于官能化,偏向于日常世俗层面的展示;第四,人物形象过多,心理描写太少,因而造成人物塑造过于扁平化;等等。面对毕晓普所提及的这些中国小说的“局限”,我反而认为这是中国小说“讲故事”传统中非常重要的正面特质。毕晓普所定义的小说大抵依托的是西方小说美学的标准,因而他并没有充分认识到中西文化的差异性。这种评判标准最大的不足,就在于以西方小说的美学标准来评判中国小说。在韩国,《三国演义》比《圣经》更为畅销,甚至有的出版社当年收益的百分之八十全靠《三国演义》一本书,这是西方人很难想象和理解的。不管其美学结构形式如何,中国“讲故事”的传统则是非常贴合广大韩国读者的接受习惯的。中国著名作家莫言在获得诺贝尔文学奖时,委员会给他的颁奖词为——“将魔幻现实主义与民间故事、历史与当代社会融合在一起”,从而也肯定了中国小说中非常丰富的对民间生活、社会话题和历史经验的重视,以这些作为“讲故事”的素材。刘再复教授也曾强调,中国过去一百年的历史动荡和大苦大难、改革开放以后日新月异的社会变化以及对这种变化与历史的反思,均已成为中国当代小说重要的题材来源,并构成了中国当代文学的重要特殊优势。

WANGDEWEI(David Wang)DUIZHONGGUOWENXUEDEJIAZHIYOUGUOYIGEPINGSHU,“ZAILEIYUXIAOZHIJIAN,XIAOSHUOCENGFUZAIZHEGEMINGYUJIANGUODENGSHIMING,YEJUEBUQINGHUFENGHUAXUEYUE、YINSHINANNVDEZHONGYAOXING。XIAOSHUODETIANDIJIANRONGBINGXU、ZHONGSHENGXUANHUA。BIQILISHIZHENGZHILUNSHUZHONGDEZHONGGUO,XIAOSHUOSUOFANYINGDEZHONGGUOHUOXUGENGZHENQIESHIZAIXIE”。ZHEIYEYINZHENGLEAERBEI·JIAMOUDESHUOFA:“WOMENDERENSHENGBINGBUSHIYILILUNLAIBEIJIYIDE,ERSHIYIFENGJINGLAIJIYIDE。”WOFANYIZHONGGUODANGDAIWENXUEZUOPIN,YIGECENGMIANSHANGSHIWEILETUIGUANGYUCHUANBOZHONGGUOWENXUE,LINGYIGECENGMIANSHANGYESHIWEIHANGUODUZHEKAITUOCHULINGYIPIANYICAIFENCHENGDEWENXUEHUAYUAN,WEIHANGUODEWENXUEFAZHANTIGONGJINGJIANXINGDEWENBEN。HANGUOZUOJIAHEDUZHEKEYIJIECIQINGTINGZHONGGUOWENXUEZHONGJIANGDESHI“SHENMEYANGDEGUSHI”,TONGSHIXUEXIZHONGGUOZUOJIASHITONGGUO“RUHEJIANGGUSHI”LAIWANCHENGZIJIDESIXIANGBIAODADE。JINGGUOSANSHIDUONIANDEGAIGEKAIFANGHEQUANQIUHUALANGCHAODECHONGJI,ZHONGGUODANGDAIWENXUEYICONGSHEHUIZHUYICHUJIJIEDUANDEXIANSHIZHUYIMEIXUELICHANGZHUANBIANWEIXIANZAIJIYOUZIJITESEYOUSHANYUXISHOUQITAMINZUYOUXIUWENXUETEZHIDEMINZUXINGYUGUOJIHUAXIANGRONGHEDEMEIXUEGEDIAO。QIZHONG,“XIANGTUZHUYI”HE“GEMINGLANGMANZHUYI”YEDOUSHIJUYOUZHONGGUOTESEDEWENLUNGAINIAN。JIJUMINZUTESEDEBIAODAFANGSHIHESHUXIECELVEYIJINGCHENGWEIZHONGGUODANGDAIZUOJIAJIANGHAO“ZHONGGUOGUSHI”DEHEXINNENGLIANG。

BIRUSHUO,WOFANYIZUOPINZUIDUODELIANGGEZHONGGUOZUOJIAFENBIESHILIUZHENYUNHEYANLIANKE,LIUZHENYUNDEZUOPINYIFANYISIBEN,YANLIANKEDEZUOPINFANYILIUBEN,JIJIANGCHUBANDEHAIYOULIANGZHEDE《YIJUDINGYIWANJU》HE《FENGYASONG》。LIANGGEZUOJIASUIRANTONGWEIHENANREN,DANLIANGZHEJIANGHUAKOUYINDECHAYIBIHANGUOYUCHAOXIANLIANGDIHAIYAODA,TAMENDEWENXUEGUANHEMEIXUELICHANGYEBUJINXIANGTONG。LIUZHENYUNDEXIAOSHUOZHUYAOGUANZHUYINSHIHEYUYANJIAOLIUDEWENTI,SHIGUANYU“KOU”DEZHUTI,YOUCIHUICHENGZHONGGUONONGCUNSHENGHUODEYIFUJUANZHOUTU,BINGZAIQIZHONGJIYUDUIRENSHENGPUSHIJIAZHIDESHENKESIKAO。LIUZHENYUNDEXUSHICELVESHI“ZHONGGUOSHIDEYOUMO”,RANGRENRENJUNBUJIN,TONGSHIYOUGANDAOFEICHANGCHENZHONG。XIANGBIZHIXIA,YANLIANKEDEXIAOSHUOXUSHIZECHENGXIANCHULINGYIZHONGTEZHI。TASHANZHANGYUNYONGDUIOU、FANFU、KUAZHANG、ANYUDENGXIUCIJIQIAO,TONGSHIYOUYIYOUMEIDEYUYAN、QITEDEBIXINGGOUCHENGRUMAKE·XIAKAER(Marc Chagall)HUAZUOBANQIHUANDESHIJIE,YOUCIERZHANKAIZIJIDEPIPANYUSIKAO。ZHONGGUOMEIYIGEZUOJIADOUYOUZIJIDUTEDEXUSHICELVEHESHUXIEFANGSHI,ZHEIXIEDOUSHIHANGUOZUOJIAKEYITONGGUOFANYIZUOPINGANSHOUDAO,BINGKEZAIQIZHONGJIQUYINGYANGDE。


访:中韩两国间文化交流的渊源由来已久,历史与文化上的同源性是否对翻译工作有很大的帮助?目前中国当代文学在韩国图书市场面临的现状和困境是什么?

金泰成:朝鲜第四代国王世宗大王李祹与其子第五代国王文宗大王李珦于1443年进行了《训民正音》一书的编纂工作,创制了朝鲜语文字,该书于1446年农历九月上旬正式出版与发布使用。《训民正音·序》曰:“国之语音,异乎中国,与文字不相流通。故愚民,有所欲言,而终不得伸其情者多矣。予为此悯然,新制二十八字,欲使人人易习便于日用耳。”由此可见,世宗大王创造韩文最重要的目的之一就是实现与汉语更为通畅的交流。这也是象征中国文化与韩国文化同根亲缘的重要标志。

HANYUYUHANYUZHIJIANDEQINYUANXINGYUTONGGENXING,YIFANGMIANSHIHANYUXIANGBIQITAYUYANNENGGOUGENGRONGYIZHUANYIZHONGWEN,ZAIGENGDACHENGDUSHANGBAOLIUYUANWENDEYIZHIHEYUNWEI;LINGYIFANGMIANYEYINWEI“TONGYUANXING”,HUIYINCICHANSHENG“TONGCIYIYILEI”DEWUYI。GUHANYUZHONGYUHANYUTONGXINGDECIYUZHANBAIFENZHIQISHIYISHANG,TONGSHIYECUNZAIHENDUOTONGCIYIYIDECIHUI。BIRU“SHENKE”YICI,ZAIHANYUZHONGBIAOSHIGANSHOUSHIWUDECHENGDUHENSHENHUODUISHIWUDELIJIEHENTOUCHEHESHENRU,ZAIHANYUZHONGZEBIAOSHIMOUGESHIWUDEFUMIANYINGXIANGHENYANZHONG。NEIXIEYINQUEFADUIZHONGGUOWENHUAHEHANZIDETOUCHELIJIE,JINWEIZHUIQIUFANYIHECHUBANDESUDUERSUIYIJINXINGZHIYIDEFANYIZUOPIN,WUYIHUIPOHUAIZHONGGUOXIAOSHUOZHONGDEJUEMIAOYIQUYUSHENDUNEIHAN。ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGZHENGMANYANZAIHANGUODEZHONGWENYIZUOSHICHANGZHONG,BINGZAOCHENGLEBULIANGDEXIAOGUO,BIRUZAIHANGUO“Yes24”DAXINGTUSHUWANGSHOUPINGTAISHANGJIUYOUXUDUOZHEILEIYIZUOXIAOSHOU,DUZHEZECHANGYINFANYIZHILIANGERDUIZHONGGUOXIAOSHUOCHANSHENGPAICHIXINLIHEFUMIANPINGJIA。ZHEIZHONGFANYIWULUNSHIDUIYUANZUOHAISHIYIZUO、ZUOJIAHAISHIYIZHE,DOUWUYISHIYIZHONGZICANXINGWEI。ZHENGSHIYINWEIZHEIXIEBULIANGYIZUODECUNZAI,SHIDEZHONGGUODANGDAIWENXUEZAIHANGUODESHICHANGSHANGDETONGXINGBINGBUSHISHIFENCHANGDA。ZHONGGUODANGDAIWENXUEXIANGYAOZAIHANDETUIGUANGYUCHUANBO,MUQIANZUIPOQIEDERENWUSHIXUYAOPEIYANGHEFAJUEYIPIYUYANGUOGUANBINGJUYOUFENGFURENWENZHISHINEIHANJIQIANGLIESHIMINGGANHEZERENGANDEYIZHE。

CHULEYIZHEZISHENDESUYANGYAOQIUZHIWAI,CHUBANJIEYEYINGGAICHONGFENZHONGSHIYIZHEZAIZHENGGECHUBANHUANJIEZHONGDEZHONGYAODIWEI,BUNENGJIANDANBAFANYIDANGZUOYIGEMEIJIEERYI,ERSHISHIYIZHEZAIFANYI、CHUBAN、SHICHANGXUNHUANJIEGOUZHONGCHENGWEIYIGESHUANGXIANGYINGXIANGDEJIJIYINZI。CHUBANSHEZAIZUNXUNDUZHEDESHICHANGXUQIUZHIWAI,YEYINGBAYOUXIUYIZHEDESHENPANBIAOZHUNSHIWEITUSHUSHICHANGDEFENGXIANGBIAOZHIYI。YOULERUCIJIANKANG、LIANGXINGDEHEZUOJIEGOUHEFAZHANMOSHI,YIZHECAINENGGENGHAODIDANDANGQI“WENXUENVPU”DEJIAOSE。

YOUGUANZHONGGUOWENXUEZUOPINZAIHANDETUIGUANGYUCHUANBOGONGZUO,YUDAODELINGYIGEKUNJING,SHIMUQIANSUOFANYIDEZUOJIAZUOPINDUOJIZHONGYU20SHIJIWULIUSHINIANDAI,ERQUEFADUIDUOCENGCIZUOJIAHEDUOYUANHUAZUOPINDETUIJIE。GUANYUZHEIYIDIAN,YANLIANKECENGBIAOSHI,20SHIJISANSISHINIANDAICHUSHENGDEZUOJIA,YINWEINIANLINGYINSUERWUFAKUAISU、ZHENQIEDICANYUDAODANGXIAZHONGGUODEXIANSHIYUBIANHUAZHONG,TAMENDAIBIAODESHIZHONGGUODANGDAIWENXUEHUIHUANGDEZUOTIAN;20SHIJIBAJIUSHINIANDAICHUSHENGDEZUOJIABIJIAONIANQING,SHIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEXIA“DUSHENGZINV”DEYIDAI,TAMENZAIWUZHIFANGMIANFUZUQUEYOUPINQIONGDAOZHAOBUDAOJINGSHENDECHULUHEGUITU。YINCI,20SHIJIWULIUSHINIANDAIYUQISHINIANDAIDEZUOJIABIANHENZIRANCHENGLEHANGUOZHONGWENTUSHUSHICHANGZHONGDEZHULIUZUOJIA。DANSHI,YIGEGUOJIADEQUANMAOYINGGAISHIYOUBUTONGNIANLINGCENG、BUTONGJIECENG、BUTONGLINGYUDERENGONGTONGGOUCHENGDE,ZHONGGUODANGDAIWENXUEDEQUANJINGYEYINGGAICHENGXIANCHUQIDUOCENGCIYUDUOYANGXING,ERBUYINGJUXIANYUMOUYINIANLINGCENGZUOJIADEZUOPIN。YINCI,HANGUOYIZHEHECHUBANJIEZAIZHEYANYUZHONGGUOWENXUEZUOPINJIANGSHU“SHENMEYANGDEGUSHI”“RUHEJIANGSHU”DEWENTIZHIWAI,YEYINGGAIKAOLVRUHECHENGXIANZHONGGUOGUSHIDEDUOYUANHUAHEFENGFUXING。ZHONGGUODANGDAIWENXUEZAIHANGUODEJIXUTUIJIEYUCHUANBO,YELIBUKAIZHONGHANLIANGGUODEHUXIEYUGONGCHI。



(BIANZHEZHU:BENWENZHUANZAIZI《HANFENG》JIKANDIERJI)

责任编辑:罗雨静